Anatomy and Physiology

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Basic Anatomy and Physiology

Cardiovascular System

Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Nervous System

Sensory System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Urinary System

Reproductive System

Endocrine System

Integumentary System

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Basic Anatomy and Physiology

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Describing the Human Body

Anatomical Positions, Directions, and Planes

Body Planes/Sections
Learn more about body planes and sections. There are three basic reference planes used in anatomy: the sagittal plane, the coronal plane, and the transverse plane.

A quick start on anatomical directions

Anatomical Position,directions And Planes [FLASHCARDS]

Anatomical Terms of Direction and Planes of Section [VIDEO]
What IS that? WHERE is that? Success in anatomy and the medical field requires the ability to precisely describe locations of structures in the body.

Introduction, Anatomical Position and Anatomical Directions – Video #1 of Functional Anatomy [VIDEO]

Anatomical Terminology: Body Cavities and membranes [VIDEO]

Anatomy: Body Cavities and Membranes [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Anatomy: Body Cavities and Membranes. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Sectional Anatomy

The Organization of the Human Body: Body Cavities [SLIDESHOW]–body-cavities
In this interactive object, learners examine the locations of major body cavities and their protective membranes. A drag-and-drop exercise completes the activity.

Intro Anatomy 1 Dorsal Cavity [VIDEO]

Intro Anatomy 2- Thoracic Cavity [VIDEO]

Intro Anatomy 3 Abdominal Cavity 1 [VIDEO]

Intro Anatomy 4 -Abdominal Cavity 2 [VIDEO]

Intro Anatomy 5 Pelvic Cavity [VIDEO]

Intro Anatomy 6 Cavities of the Head [VIDEO]

Anatomical Terminology: Body Regions [SLIDESHOW]–body-regions
Students identify the various regions of the human body through drag-and-drop exercises.

Anterior And Posterior Body Landmarks [FLASHCARDS]

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Organizational Levels of the Body

Body Organization [VIDEO]

Organization of the Human Body
Introduces cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems in humans.

Levels of Structural Organization in the human body
This lesson focuses on the levels of structural organization in the human body. A good understanding of this is needed for Anatomy and Physiology.

Levels of structural organization [SLIDESHOW]

Anatomy – levels of structural organization in the human body [FLASHCARDS]

Cell Structure [VIDEO]

Cell Structure and Function [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Cell Structure and Function. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Cell Division, Mitosis, and Meiosis

Cell Division and Cancer
Cancer is somewhat like an evolutionary process. Over time, cancer cells accumulate multiple mutations in genes that control cell division. Learn how dangerous this accumulation can be.

How is genetic information stored?

Cells and DNA

Specific Genetic Disorders
Index to fact sheets on various types of cancers and other specific genetic disorders, published by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

What are the four types of tissue found in the human body?

Overview of Epithelial Cells

What Is Epithelial Tissue? – Function, Types & Structure [VIDEO]

What Is Carcinoma?
Find out about the symptoms of different types of carcinomas, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

What is an Adenoma?
Adenoma is a type of non-cancerous tumor or benign that may affect various organs. It is derived from the word “adeno” meaning ‘pertaining to a gland’.


Clinical and Histopathologic Aspects of Skin Cancer

Muscle cell types
Muscle tissue, one of the four major tissue types, plays the vital role of providing movement and heat generation to the organs of the body. Within muscle tissue are three distinct groups of tissues: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle. Each of these tissue groups is made of specialized cells that give the tissue its unique properties.

Muscles 1 [VIDEO] – Connective Tissues

Muscles 2 [VIDEO] – Head

Muscles 3 [VIDEO] -Trunk

Muscles 4 [VIDEO] -Arm

Muscles 5 [VIDEO] – Upper Leg

Muscles 6 [VIDEO] – Lower leg

Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue [VIDEO]

Structure and Functions of Nervous Tissue
Nervous Tissue – Anatomy & Physiology Revision about the Structure and Functions of Human Tissue Types.

Your Body’s Systems
Systems of the body including circulatory, digestive, endocrine, immune, lymphatic, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, skeletal, and urinary.

Body Systems
Human body is made up of ten different systems. These systems are; Skeletal system, Muscular system, Nervous system, Respiratory system, cardiovascular system,…

Human Body Systems and Functions [VIDEO]

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Cardiovascular System

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Functions of the Circulatory System

The Cardiovascular System
Pictures of the heart, circulatory system, conduction system, arteries, and blood vessel anatomy.

Cardiovascular System [VIDEO]

Cardiovascular System [VIDEO]

The Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems

Functions of the Cardiovascular System
Knowing the functions of the cardiovascular system and the parts of the body that are part of it is critical in understanding the physiology of the human body.

Major Functions of the Cardiovascular System
On this page we take a closer look at the four major functions of the cardiovascualr system – transportation, protection, fluid balance and thermoregulation.

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Human Heart – Diagram and Anatomy of the Heart
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body).

Human Heart: Anatomy, Function & Facts
The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system.

Heart Anatomy
Pictures of the human heart showing chambers, valves, conduction system and circulatory system.

How the Heart Works

The Structure of the Heart
The structure of the heart (together with the functions of the heart) are essential learning for students of courses in human biology, anatomy and physiology, and many holistic therapies. This page is part of a series about the vascular system.

Cardiac Muscle

Coverings of the Heart: Pericardium
Learn more about pericardium. The pericardium is a thick, membranous, fluid-filled sac which encloses, protects and nourishes the heart.

Chambers of the Heart

Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

Cardiac conduction system [VIDEO]

Cardiac Conduction System

The Heartbeat
A heartbeat is a two-part pumping action that takes about a second.

The Cardiac Cycle Heartbeat Diastole Systole Blood Pressure [VIDEO]

Cardiac Cycle – Systole & Diastole [VIDEO]

Lub Dub [VIDEO]
Ever wonder why the heart sounds the way that it does? Opening and closing of heart valves makes the heart rhythm come alive with its lub dub beats.

Heart Nerve Anatomy

Parasympathetic & Sympathetic Innervation To The Heart [VIDEO]

Blood And Nerve Supply Of The Heart

Coronary anatomy and circulation [VIDEO]
This is a short video describing the anatomy of the heart and showing the circulation in the heart.

Coronary Circulation [VIDEO]

Pulmonary Circulation: It’s All in the Lungs

Systemic and Pulmonary Circulation
Learn more about systemic and pulmonary circulation. The cardiovascular system has two distinct circulatory paths, pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation.

Systemic Circulation (Blood Circulation)
Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

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Disorders and Diseases of the Heart

Heart and Cardiovascular Diseases
Explains the different types of heart disease.

Cardiac Diagnostic Tests,P00208/
Here’s a look at just a few of the tests that have been used or are being used to understand and identify cardiovascular disease.

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Brain and Hepatic Portal Circulation

The Blood Supply of the Brain and Spinal Cord

Brain Circulation / Circle of Willis Made Simple! [VIDEO]
This video will cover the basics of brain circulation (specifically focusing on the circle of willis). Included will be top of basilar syndrome.

Cerebral Circulation
Cerebral circulation refers to the way blood flows, or circulates, in the brain. Cerebral circulation is important for healthy brain function.

Hepatic Portal Circulation
Learn more about hepatic portal circulation. The hepatic portal system is responsible for directing blood from parts of the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.

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Fetal Circulation

Fetal Circulation
The American Heart Association explains why Fetal Circulation, circulation in the fetus, is more complicated than after birth.

Fetal Circulation [VIDEO]

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Blood Vessels

The Heart and Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels

Illustrations of the Blood Vessels

Arteries and Nerves [ANIMATION]
Due to all of the critical functions controlled by the brain, the head houses major nerves and requires a substantial amount of blood flow.

Arteries: Arteries Carry Away

Arteries Of The Body (diagram)

Arteries and Veins Part 1 [VIDEO]

Arteries and Veins Part 2 [VIDEO]

Principal Veins
Learn more about principal veins. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood towards the heart, have thin, inelastic walls, and contain numerous valves.

Circulation – Venous [DIAGRAM]

Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels and serve as the connection between the arterial and venal systems of the cardiac system. The action of the diaphragm and muscles in the arms and legs exerts a massaging effect that helps to move blood back to the heart.

Capillaries: Connecting Arteries and Veins

The Heart and Vascular Disease
Vascular disease includes any condition that affects your circulatory system, such as aneurysms, deep vein thrombosis, lymphadema, varicose veins, blood clots, and peripheral artery disease.

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Blood, Lymphatic and Immune Systems

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Functions of the Blood

Blood Function and Composition
Learn interesting facts about your blood, why it is so important, the parts that make up blood and how these are produced. Our blood even changes as we age.

The Role of Blood in the Body
Learn more about the role of blood in the body. The many roles of blood include delivering nutrients and oxygen to cells, transporting waste from cells, and maintaining homeostasis.

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Composition of the blood

Blood | Learn About Blood Composition And Its Functions [VIDEO]

Blood – composition, function, cells, pathology
The Blood is an essential fluid of the human body. It has different functions, for example distributing and transport tasks.

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Functions of the Blood

Blood Components & Functions [VIDEO]

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Composition of the blood

Blood Plasma [VIDEO]

Erythrocyctes [VIDEO]


Leukocytes [VIDEO]
This video is a discussion of white blood cells called lymphocytes. It describes the various types of white blood cells and their function.

Leukocytes [VIDEO]

Blood Cell Bakery–Thrombocytes [VIDEO]

Thrombocytes, which are one of the many essential substances that together form healthy blood.

Stem Cell Basics

What are Stem Cells?
Introduction to stem cells. Contains information, diagrams and videos on stem cells.

Substances transported in blood [VIDEO]

Rh Blood Types

Blood Types [VIDEO]
This video is a discussion of blood groups and blood transfusions. It’s a look at the various antigens found on red blood cells known as the ABO system.

Abbreviations – Blood [FLASHCARDS]

How Blood Clots
Learn about How Blood Clots symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Hemostasis [VIDEO]

Rh factor blood test
Rh factor blood test — Overview covers definition, results of this routine blood test for pregnant women.

Types of Blood Disorders
Explains different types of blood disorders and their causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
The lymphatic system helps rid the body of toxins. It transports white blood cells throughout the body to fight infection.

Lymph system

The Lymphatic System [VIDEO]
This video is an introduction to the lymphatic system. It discusses the formation of lymph as well as its composition.

Lymphatics and Immune Organs Lab [VIDEO]
This video demonstrates the lymphatic organs, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus and spleen using models.

Why do we need a lymphatic system [VIDEO]

Components of the Lymphatic System

Lymphatic System Function
Learn more about functions of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system plays a prominent role in immune function, fatty acid absorption, and removal of interstitial fluid from tissues.

Lymphatic Vessels

What are lymph nodes?
Lymph is clear or white fluid that travels through vessels, moves within tissues and work to keep all the parts of the body clean. After passing through the channels of the lymphatic system they drain into the lymph nodes.

The Tonsils (Human Anatomy): Picture, Definition, Location, and Problems

An Overview of the Thymus – The Gland that Protects You Long after It’s Gone
The thymus gland is largest during childhood and shrinks after puberty, but its effect on your body’s defenses last your whole life. Learn more about this important gland.

Disorders of the Lymphatic System

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Immune System

Immune System
NIAID information on the human immune system, including research information.

Specificity of the Immune System [VIDEO]

Physical and Chemical Barriers
Learn more about physical and chemical barriers. The innate immune response has physical and chemical barriers that exist as the first line of defense against infectious pathogens.

Nonspecific Mechanisms of Defense

Immune response

Specific Acquired Immunity

Specific immunity

Diseases of the Immune System

Immune System and Disorders

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Respiratory System

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Structure and Function of the Respiratory System

The Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems

Respiratory System
The Human Respiratory System – explore anatomy of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, from nasal passages to the lungs, using interactive diagrams.

Introduction to the Respiratory System [VIDEO]

The Respiratory System – Structure And Function

Respiratory System Anatomy, Diagram & Function
Every cell in the body requires oxygen to function. The respiratory system, which includes air passages, pulmonary vessels, the lungs, and breathing muscles, provides oxygenated blood to the body tissues and removes waste gases.

Respiratory System: Facts, Function and Diseases
The human respiratory system consists of the lungs and other organs. Its main function is to take in oxygen and carbon dioxide.

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Upper Respiratory Tract

Upper respiratory tract

Nose Anatomy, Function & Diagram
The nose is the body’s primary organ of smell and also functions as part of the body’s respiratory system. Air comes into the body through the nose. As it passes over the specialized cells of the olfactory system, the brain recognizes and identifies smells.

Nose Facts, Diseases, Functions And Location
Nose is the prominent part of the human face and Nose facts tell that there are a lots of Nose diseases. Check nose functions as well.

Sinuses (Human Anatomy): Function, Picture, Location, Definition

The respiratory system – Part 1: nose, pharynx and larynx
This series looks at the structure and function of the respiratory system and describes the mechanics of breathing. Each of the cells in the body needs a supply of oxygen in order to function as well as a means to expel the carbon dioxide produced. The respiratory system (along with the cardiovascular system) is largely dedicated to supplying these needs. This article, the first in this four-part series, looks at the nose, pharynx and larynx.

The Larynx, Voice, and Respiratory Processes [VIDEO]

The Pharynx And Larynx

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Lower Respiratory Tract

Lower respiratory tract

Lower Respiratory Tract

Gas Exchange and Lung Compliance [VIDEO]

The Trachea (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Conditions, and More

Bronchi Function, Definition & Anatomy
Bronchi are the main passageway into the lungs. When someone takes a breath through their nose or mouth, the air travels into the larynx. The next step is through the trachea, which carries the air to the left and right bronchus.

Bronchi, Bronchial Tree, & Lungs


The Lungs (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Definition, Conditions

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Mechanics of Ventilation

Gas Exchange and Lung Compliance [VIDEO]

Gas Exchange and Transport [VIDEO]
This video is a discussion of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane. It considers how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood.

Regulation of Respiration

Regulation of Breathing [VIDEO]
This video covers the basic mechanics behind how we regulate breathing.

Respiratory function tests – ERS

Measuring Respiratory Rate

Pulmonary function tests

Steps in a Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) [VIDEO]

Pulmonary Function Tests,P07759/
Pulmonary function tests measure how well your lungs are functioning and are used to help diagnose certain lung disorders.

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Respiratory Diseases and Disorders

Lung Diseases: Types and Causes of Common Conditions

Lung Diseases

Lung Disease A – Z

Respiratory system diseases

Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Symptoms and Treatment
Learn about upper respiratory tract infection is contagious caused by bacteria and viruses such as influenza, strep, rhinoviruses, whooping cough, and diphtheria.

Respiratory agents
Compare respiratory agents. Includes user reviews and ratings for individual medications. Find related monographs and prescribing information.

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Digestive System

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Structure and Function of the Digestive System

The Circulatory, Respiratory, and Digestive Systems

Function of the Digestive System
The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body

The Structure and Function of the Digestive System

Digestive Processes and Functions of the Digestive System
Learn more about processes and functions of the digestive system. Digestion is necessary for absorbing nutrients from food and occurs through two processes: mechanical and chemical digestion.

Your Digestive System and How It Works
The digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract-also called the digestive tract-and the liver, pancreas, and the gallbladder. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus.

Intro to Digestive system [VIDEO]

Learn more about ingestion. The first step to obtaining nutrition is ingestion, a process where food is taken in through the mouth and broken down by teeth and saliva.

Digestive System | Everything You Need to Know, Including Pictures
The Human Digestive System – Interactive anatomy images teach you all about the stomach, liver, gallbladder, appendix and the other digestive system organs.

What Is the Role of Absorption in the Digestive System?
The role of absorption in the digestive system is to take nutrients in food so that they can be passed onto the blood. If the…

Digestion and Absorption
Learn more about digestion and absorption. In order for nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins) to be absorbed for energy, food must undergo chemical and mechanical digestion.

Learn more about elimination. Undigested food enters the colon where water is reabsorbed into the body and excess waste is eliminated from the anus.

The Alimentary Canal [VIDEO]
This video is a discussion of the food tube known as the alimentary canal. Sometimes referred to as the gastrointestinal tract the alimentary canal is a fasc…

Schematic/Chart – Digestive System: Alimentary Canal
Medical Histology Schematic/Chart

Digestive System

Gastrointestinal tract

Your Digestive System and How it Works
The digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. Inside this tube is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food.

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Digestive Organs

Animation: Organs of Digestion

Digestive System Anatomy, Area & Diagram
The digestive system helps your body convert food into usable nutrients through a chemical breakdown process. This occurs through a system tube-like of organs, including the trachea, stomach, liver, pancreas, intestines, and others. 

The Mouth, Tongue And Teeth

Medscape: Medscape Access

The Oral Cavity [VIDEO]
This video is a discussion of the oral cavity. It considers the anatomy and physiology of the tonsils as well as the mechanical breakdown of food by teeth an…

The Pharynx – TeachMeAnatomy
The pharynx is a muscular tube that connects the nasal cavities to the larynx and oesophagus. It is common to both the alimentary and the respiratory tract. The tube begins at the base of the skull and ends inferior to the cricoid cartilage (C6). It is comprised of three parts; the nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx (from superior to inferior).

Esophagus – anatomy and development

Esophagus Function, Pictures & Anatomy
The esophagus is a hollow muscular tube that transports saliva, liquids, and foods from the mouth to the stomach. When the patient is upright, the esophagus is usually between 25 to 30 centimeters in length, while its width averages 1.5 to 2 cm.

The Stomach (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Definition, Conditions, and More

Anatomy of the Stomach

Stomach, Gallbladder and Pancreas
The stomach, gallbladder, and pancreas are three of the most important digestive organs in the human body. These organs work together to produce and store secretions that digest our food into its most basic building blocks. Once digested, these small molecules pass into our intestines to be absorbed and to feed our body’s tissues.

The Stomach [VIDEO]

Chapter 23 Digestion-Stomach [VIDEO]–oik&list=PLgdKY5mZVdFv0u47JZ7KfNP-vQQgkMOod

The Intestines (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Location, Parts, Definition, and Conditions

Small & Large Intestine

The Small Intestine
The small intestine is a organ located in the gastrointestinal tract, which assists in the digestion and absorption of ingested food. It extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the iloececal junction, where it meets the large intestine. Anatomically, the small bowel can be divided into three parts; the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

Small Intestine Anatomy

Small Intestine
The small intestine is a long, highly convoluted tube in the digestive system that absorbs about 90% of the nutrients from the food we eat. It is given the name “small intestine” because it is only 1 inch in diameter, making it less than half the diameter of the large intestine.

Large Intestine – Anatomy and Physiology
The large intestine is the final section of the gastrointestinal tract that performs the vital task of absorbing water and vitamins while converting digested food into feces. Although shorter than the small intestine in length, the large intestine is considerably thicker in diameter, thus giving it its name.

Digestion-Small intestine [VIDEO]

Small Intestines [VIDEO]
This video is a description of the small intestine both its anatomy and its physiology. However it also considers the liver and the production of bile.

Large Intestine Anatomy

Anatomy of anal canal

Anal Canal – Simplified Anatomy [VIDEO]
After watching this video you will be able to: Define and describe the internal features of the anal canal: pectinate line, anal columns, valves and sinuses.

Ano-Rectal Anatomy

The Anus (Human Anatomy): Picture, Definition, Conditions, & More
Provides a medical diagram of the anus and explains its function and problems that can affect the anus.

The rectum and anal canal

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Accessory Organs

Anatomy, Function, and Evaluation of the Salivary Glands

Anatomy and physiology of the salivary glands
The salivary glands produce and secrete a fluid called saliva. Saliva contains water, electrolytes, mucus and enzymes. Salivary glands are considered exocrine glands because they secrete their product into ducts. Saliva enters the mouth through these ducts.

Digestion- Liver and gallbladder [VIDEO]

Liver – Anatomy and Function of the Human Liver
Weighing in at around 3 pounds, the liver is the body’s second largest organ; only the skin is larger and heavier. The liver performs many essential functions related to digestion, metabolism, immunity, and the storage of nutrients within the body.

Liver Anatomy

The Liver (Human Anatomy): Liver Picture, Definition, Function, Conditions, Tests, and Treatments
Provides detailed images, definitions, and information about the liver. Learn about its function, parts, location on the body, and conditions that affect the liver, as well as tests and treatments for liver conditions.

Interactive 3D Liver Anatomy

The Gallbladder (Human Anatomy): Picture, Definition, Function, and Related Conditions
Provides detailed images, definitions, and information about the gallbladder. Learn about its function, location on the body, and conditions that affect the gallbladder, as well as tests and treatments for gallbladder conditions.

Gallbladder Anatomy

Gallbladder Function, Location & Anatomy
The gallbladder is a pear-shaped, hollow structure located under the liver and on the right side of the abdomen. Its primary function is to store and concentrate bile, a yellow-brown digestive enzyme produced by the liver. The gallbladder is part of the biliary tract.

Gallbladder Cancer And Bile Duct Cancer: Anatomy And Physiology
Describes gallbladder and bile duct cancer: anatomy and physiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and ongoing research at Johns Hopkins. Also provides information for making an appointment at Johns Hopkins.

Pancreas Anatomy, Problems, Tests, and Treatments
Provides a detailed image, definition, and information about the pancreas. Learn the conditions that affect the pancreas as well as its function and location in the body.

Pancreas Anatomy

Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas

Pancreas Anatomy & Diagram
The pancreas is a glandular organ that produces a number of hormones essential to the body. It forms an integral part of the digestive system. The pancreas is located below and behind the stomach, in the curve of the duodenum, which is a part of the small intestine.

The Pancreas [VIDEO]
This video considers the anatomy and physiology of the pancreas. It discusses both endocrine hormones, Insulin and Glucagon.

Digestion-Pancreas [VIDEO]

Digestive Secretions

Digestive Secretion List

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What is Metabolism?

What is metabolism? How do anabolism and catabolism affect body weight?
This article provides an in depth description of what metabolism is and how anabolism and catabolism can affect a person’s body weight.


Nutrition [VIDEO]

Metabolism [VIDEO]
This video is a basic look at metabolism, which is the sum of the total chemical reactions within a cell. It also considers the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

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Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive System

Digestive Disorders and Digestive Health Center
From causes to treatment, find in-depth information to help cope with various digestive disorders.

Digestive Diseases A-Z

Digestive Disorders: Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhea
There are five basic symptoms indicating a GI tract problem. These symptoms are generally associated with dietary problems or specific food allergies. It is critical that anyone suffering from serious GI tract problems work closely with a physician to test for more developed and serious GI tract diseases.

Signs and Symptoms of the Digestive System

Digestive system diseases

Functional GI Disorders

Motility Disorders
Motility is a term used to describe the contraction of the muscles that mix and propel contents in the gastrointestinal tract.

Other Disorders
Many other disorders can affect the digestive tract. Some can have symptoms that may be similar to or overlap with gastrointestinal functional or motility disorders. These will have uniquely identifying features which differentiate them from functional GI or motility disorders.

Digestive Diagnostic Procedures,P00364/
Detailed information on the most common procedures used to diagnosis digestive disorders

Imaging Tests to help Diagnose Digestive Problems
Explains some of the imaging tests used to diagnose digestive problems.

Diagnostic Tests A-Z

Upper GI Tract X-ray
Current and accurate information for patients about the upper GI tract x-ray exam. Learn what you might experience, how to prepare, benefits, risks and much more.

Gastrointestinal agents
Compare gastrointestinal agents. Includes user reviews and ratings for individual medications. Find related monographs and prescribing information.

Drug Classification according to Anatomical & Therapeutic characteristic on Drugspedia
Drug classification according to anatomical & therapeutic characteristic, with detailed description of each group and subgroup.

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Nervous System

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Structure and Function of the Nervous System

Nervous System Anatomy, Diagram & Function
The nervous system allows us to perceive, comprehend, and respond to the world around us. The nervous system also operates the body’s essential functions, such as breathing and digestion.

Nervous System: Explore the Nerves with Interactive Anatomy Pictures
The Human Nervous System – Interact with diagrams and descriptions of the nervous system anatomy of the human body, everything from the brain to nerve endings.

Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases
The human body has a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system. These systems have specific functions, and can be affected by a variety of diseases.

Function of the Nervous System
The nervous system is formed of two parts that are integrally linked with each other. The brain and the nervous system has multiple functions that are vital for normal functioning of the body.

Functions of the Nervous System
The nervous system is a complex collection of various organs that are responsible for carrying out functions vital to the existence of man, such as thought and perception, activation of the fight or flight mechanism, and controlling motor functions and responses.

The Central Nervous System

Nervous system [VIDEO]

Anatomy of the Central Nervous System
Learn about the central nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. Illustrations and pictures of the anatomy of the CNS are included in the information.

Peripheral nervous system definition
Read doctor-produced health and medical information written for you to make informed decisions about your health concerns.

Nerve Cell

Human Body and Mind – Nervous System Layer
Find out about nerve cells and nerves and how nerve impulses travel around your body.

cells of the nervous system
Intended for elementary and secondary school students and teachers who are interested in learning about the nervous system and brain with hands on activities, experiments and information.

Anatomy of a Neuron [VIDEO]
This video considers the anatomy of a neuron. A neuron is a typical nerve cell found in nervous tissue. It’s a basic look at the structure of a neuron.

Nervous System – The Neuron [VIDEO]

Neurons & Synapses – Memory & the Brain

Neuroglial Cells


Animation: The Nerve Impulse

Transmission of Nerve Impulses
The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the membrane of the neuron.

Nerve Impulse Mechanism [3D Animation] [VIDEO]

Neuroscience For Kids – Explore the nervous system

Subdivisions of the Nervous System
Learn more about subdivisions of the nervous system. The CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, while the PNS is a network of nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord.

Nervous System- Meninges [VIDEO]

Brain (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Parts, Conditions, and More
Provides a detailed diagram and definition of the brain including its function, parts, and conditions that affect it.

Brain – Human Brain Diagrams and Detailed Information
The brain is one of the most complex and magnificent organs in the human body. Our brain gives us awareness of ourselves and of our environment, processing a constant stream of sensory data. It controls our muscle movements, the secretions of our glands, and even our breathing and internal temperature.

A Guide to Brain Anatomy
A graphical guide to Brain Anatomy, including the frontal lobes, brainstem, parietallobes, occiptal lobes and temporal lobes .

Medscape: Medscape Access

Parts of the Brain [VIDEO]

Parts of the Brain [VIDEO]

Cranial Nerves – Introduction

Cranial Nerves

NeuroLogic Examination Videos and Descriptions: Cranial Nerve > Anatomy

The Cerebrum

Cerebrum – Brain
The cerebrum, which develops from the front portion of the forebrain, is the largest part of the mature brain. It consists of two large masses, called cerebral hemispheres, which are almost mirror images of each other.

Nervous system – cerebrum [VIDEO]

Lobes of the Brain
The human brain contains the frontal, occipital, temporal, and parietal lobes. Read on to discover how these four areas in the brain function to support our thoughts and reactions and discover what can occur when these areas of the brain are injured.

Ventricles of the Brain

Diencephalon and Thalamus

Functions of the Diencephalon

Nervous system – cerebellum/brain stem [VIDEO]


Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

Structure and Function: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves

About The Brain and Spinal Cord
Description of various parts of the brain and spinal cord — the central nervous system — and how they work.

Nervous System – Spinal Cord [VIDEO]

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Autonomic Nervous System [VIDEO]

The Autonomic Nervous System

Sensory-Somatic Nervous System
Learn more about sensory-somatic nervous system. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits sensory information from the body to the brain and motor movements from the brain to the body.

Nervous System – Touch [VIDEO]

Nervous System – Taste and Smell [VIDEO]

The Sense of Touch [VIDEO]
This video investigates the sense of touch. It looks at various touch receptors in the epidermis and dermis. It’s rather a light touch of the sense.

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous System

What’s the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls the activities of organs, glands, and various involuntary muscles, such as cardiac and smooth muscles.

Components of a Reflex Arc
Learn more about components of a reflex arc. A reflex arc defines the pathway by which a reflex travels, from the stimulus to sensory neuron to motor neuron to reflex muscle movement.

Reactions and Reflexes

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Diseases and Disorders of the Nervous System

Nervous system diseases

Neurologic Diseases

Neurological Diseases & Disorders A-Z

Neurological Disorder Resources

Functional and Dissociative Neurological Symptoms: a patient’s guide

Neurological Problem Symptoms, Causes and Effects

Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
Fact sheet on neurological diagnosis and testing, prepared by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS).

Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders,P00811/
Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system is complicated and complex. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders.

Nervous System Problems-Prevention
Tips to help prevent problems with the nervous system.

Understanding and Strengthening Nervous System Health [Slideshow]


Seizures (Generalized and Partial) Causes

What is stroke?
Each year, more women have strokes than men. National Stroke Association created a set of prevention guidlines just for women to outline unique risk factors of women.

Drugs And The Nervous System

Central nervous system agents
Compare central nervous system agents. Includes user reviews and ratings for individual medications. Find related monographs and prescribing information.

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Mental Health

Mental Health

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Mental Health Information
Links to NIMH pages about mental disorders.

Identifying Mental Illness Early Through Routine Mental Health Screening

Integrating primary care and mental health key to improving patient care, lowering costs
Under the Affordable Care Act, most health plans are required to cover preventive services such as depression screening for adults and behavioral assessments for children. That means more patients will be turning to their primary care doctors for help with emotional and behavioral health problems.

Integrating Mental Health Treatment Into the Patient Centered Medical Home

Categories of Psychiatric Medications – The Medications – What Meds?

Drugs That Treat Mental Illnesses
Provides an overview of drugs used to treat various mental illnesses.

Mental illness Symptoms
Mental illness — Comprehensive overview covers risk factors, symptoms and treatment for mental illness.

Warning Signs of Mental Illness

Signs and Symptoms of Mental Illness

Mental illness Tests and diagnosis
Mental illness — Comprehensive overview covers risk factors, symptoms and treatment for mental illness.

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Sensory System

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Sensory System

Sensory Systems
A sensory system is a part of nervous system consisting of sensory receptors that receive stimuli from internal and external environment, neural pathways that conduct this information to brain and parts of brain that processes this information.

Sensory Systems

Sensory Receptors

Sensory Systems
This course examines the neural bases of sensory perception. The focus is on physiological and anatomical studies of the mammalian nervous system as well as behavioral studies of animals and humans. Topics include visual pattern, color and depth perception, auditory responses and sound localization, and somatosensory perception.

Human Sense Organs – The Five Senses
The anatomy and structure of the five sense organs of the human body: vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

Special Senses [VIDEO]

General Sensation flashcards [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for General Sensation. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Skin and Body Senses: Pressure, Temperature, and Pain
Learn more about somatosensation: pressure, temperature, and pain. The somatosensory system (the touch system) allows the human body to perceive the physical sensations of pressure, temperature, and pain.

Special Senses

Gustation: Taste Buds and Taste
Learn more about gustation: taste buds and taste. The gustatory system, including the mouth, tongue and taste buds, allows us to transduce chemical molecules into specific taste sensations.

Taste and Smell

The Physiology of Taste
A tutorial on the physiology of taste, giving the basic anatomy of the gustatory system, a description of the taste papillae, taste buds, the regional distribution of taste papillae, an evaluation of the validity of Taste Maps, and including an explanation of taste transduction mechanisms, the different classes of taste receptors and ion channels. A definition and explanation of the five different taste modalities, e.g. sweet, salt, sour, bitter and umami, and how they are detected.

Gustatory system: The finer points of taste
As more receptors are defined, researchers will further unlock the mechanics of taste. How the mind perceives these sensory signals is another matter.

Nervous System – Taste and Smell [VIDEO]

The Sense of Taste [VIDEO]
This video is a description of the sense of taste. It’s a close look at taste buds along the tongue in particular.

Chemical Senses: Olfaction and Gustation

Olfaction: The Nasal Cavity and Smell
Learn more about olfaction: the nasal cavity and smell. The olfactory system gives humans their sense of smell by collecting odorants from the environment and transducing them into neural signals.

Taste and Smell

Smell Disorders

Smell & Taste

The Olfactory Epithelium and Olfactory Receptor Neurons – Neuroscience

The Smell Report – The human sense of smell.
Although the human sense of smell is feeble compared to that of many animals, it is still very acute. We can recognise thousands of different smells, and we are able to detect odours even in infinitesimal quantities.

Cortical Activity Evoked by Odors – The Neurobiology of Olfaction

The Sense of Smell [VIDEO]
This video considers the sense of smell. It looks at Olfactory receptors found in the olfactory epithelium.

Sense of sight Medical Encyclopedia Image

Structure and Function of the Eyes
Learn about Structure and Function of the Eyes symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

The Sense of Sight [VIDEO]
This video considers the anatomy and physiology of the eye. It also looks at some accessory organs and their structure and function.

Nervous System – Eye Model [VIDEO]

Eye Structure and Function

Optic Nerve Function, Anatomy & Definition
The optic nerve is located in the back of the eye. It is also called the second cranial nerve or cranial nerve II. It is the second of several pairs of cranial nerves.

Human Eye Anatomy – Parts of the Eye Explained

Eye Anatomy Detail Picture Image on
View an Illustration of Eye Anatomy Detail and learn more about Medical Anatomy and Illustrations.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye: Click for Pictures
Even though the eye is small, only about 1 inch in diameter, it serves a very important function — the sense of sight. Learn about the anatomy and physiology of the eye and see pictures of eye anatomy.

Muscles of the Eye
The eye muscle is the fastest reacting muscle of the whole body, contracting in less than 1/100th of a second. In fact, the eye muscles work together to carry out no less than seven coordinated movements and allow the eye to track many different kinds of moving object.

Actions of the ocular muscles [VIDEO]

Eye Accessory Organs flashcards [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Eye Accessory Organs. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Vision Is Our Dominant Sense
Find out more about vision problems that can occur after a brain injury.

Eye Health Guide – Eye Diseases, Eye Problems and Eye Conditions

Dry Eye Syndrome: Learn About Common Causes
Read about dry eye syndrome (DES) causes, symptoms, medications and treatment. Chronic, severe DES may cause infection, scarring of the eyes and even vision loss.


Audition: Hearing, the Ear, and Sound Localization
Learn more about audition: hearing, the ear, and sound localization. The human auditory system allows us to perceive and localize sounds in our physical environment.

Nervous System – Ear Model [VIDEO]

Sense of Hearing [VIDEO]
This video discusses the anatomy and physiology of hearing.

SparkNotes: Sensation and Perception: Hearing

The Outer Ear

The Inner Ear

Anatomy of the Ear | Inner Ear | Middle Ear | Outer Ear
Learn about the anatomy of the ear and how the inner ear, middle ear, and outer ear work together to move sound for processing and translation.

Hearing Tests
A hearing (audiometric) test is part of an ear examination that evaluates a person’s ability to hear by measuring the ability of sound to reach the brain.

Ear Disorders

Ear Disorders and Infections




Sensing your own body is more complicated than you realize
Close your eyes and touch your nose. If everything is working properly, this should be easy because your brain can sense your body, as well as its position and movement through space. This is called proprioception. But how does this sixth sense work — and what happens when it clashes with other senses?

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Skeletal System

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Function of the Skeletal System

Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases
The human skeleton has 206 bones. The skeletal system performs several vital functions and can be affected by several diseases.

What are the three main functions of the skeletal system?
If you didn’t have a skeletal system, you’d probably look (and feel) like a giant, hairy water balloon that would jiggle and wobble if someone poked at you.

Skeletal System Anatomy, Diagram & Function
The skeletal system gives the body its basic framework, providing structure, protection, and movement. The 206 bones in the body also produce blood cells, store important minerals, and release hormones necessary to life.

Introduction to the Skeletal System [VIDEO]

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Bone and Cartilage

Bone vs Cartilage – Difference and Comparison


Bone Cells

Bone Development
The skeleton arises from fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage during the first month of embryonic development.

Osteogenesis: The Development of Bones
Some of the most obvious structures derived from the paraxial mesoderm are bones. We can only begin to outline the mechanisms of bone formation here; students wishing further details are invited to consult histology textbooks that devote entire chapters to this topic.

Bone Development & Growth

Bone Structure

Structure and composition of bone

What is bone marrow? What does bone marrow do?
Everything you need to know about bone marrow. Find out what bone marrow is, what happens if it does not function properly and information on bone marrow donation and transplants.

Cartilage Tissue – Structure and Functions of Human Tissue Types.
Cartilage Tissue – Anatomy & Physiology Revision about the Structure and Functions of Human Tissue Types.

Structure, Type and Location of Cartilage
Learn more about structure, type, and location of cartilage. Cartilage is an avascular, flexible connective tissue located through out the body, providing support and cushioning for adjacent tissues.

What is Cartilage?- Definition, Types & Function [VIDEO]

Bone Surface Markings
Learn more about bone surface markings. Bone markings on the surface of the axial bones indicate attachments or articulations, or openings for nerves and blood vessels.

Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

Bone Surface Markings [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Bone Surface Markings. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Types of bones in the human body

Types of bone

Skeletal System [VIDEO]

Principles of Bone Healing

Principles of Fracture Healing [VIDEO]

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Axial and appendicular Skeleton

Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
The human skeleton can be grouped into two main categories – the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. This diagram shows which bones in the human skeleton are part of the axial skeleton and which are part of the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the skull and vertebral column while the appendicular skeleton includes the arms, legs, shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle.

Skeleton Axial and Appendicular
Human skeleton, axial and appendicular divisions. Large full color medical illustration and description with all bones labeled.

Axial and Appendicular
Learn more about divisions of the skeletal system: axial and appendicular. The skeletal system is divided into two distinct divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular system.

Axial Skeleton (80 bones)

Skull – Anatomy Pictures and Information
A collection of 22 bones, the skull protects the all-important brain and supports the other soft tissues of the head. During fetal development, the bones of the skull form within tough, fibrous membranes in a fetus’ head. As these bones grow throughout fetal and childhood development, they begin to fuse together, forming a single skull.

Skull: Cranium and Facial Bones

Bones of thorax and spine [VIDEO]

Spine – Anatomy Pictures and Information

The Thorax

Thorax [QUIZ]

Sternum – Anatomy Pictures and Information
The sternum, commonly known as the breastbone, is a long, narrow flat bone that serves as the keystone of the rib cage and stabilizes the thoracic skeleton. Several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck have their origins on the sternum.

Sternum Area, Anatomy & Pictures
The sternum, or breastbone , is a flat bone at the front center of the chest. The ribs and sternum make up what is called the “ribcage.” The ribcage protects the lungs, blood vessels, and heart, along with parts of the spleen, stomach, and kidneys from traumatic injury.

Rib Cage Anatomy
Tutorials and quizzes on the structure of the ribs, rib cage, and sterum using interactive animations, and diagrams.

Human Appendicular Skeleton
Learn more about human appendicular skeleton. The appendicular skeleton supports the attachment and functions of the upper and lower limbs of the human body.

Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones)

Upper Extremity Bones – Appendicular Skeleton
Tutorials and quizzes on the anatomy of the upper limb bones of the appendicular skeleton, using interactive diagrams and animations.

Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Extremity [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Extremity. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Lower Appendicular skeleton [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Appendicular skeleton lower limbs. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Structure and Function: The Joints

Classification of Joints on the Basis of Structure and Function
Learn more about classification of joints on the basis of structure and function. Joints, responsible for movement and stability of the skeleton, can be classified based on structure or function.

Joints [VIDEO]

Joint Movements [VIDEO]

Classifying Joints
The intricate movements of a human, such as those performed in dance and athletics, are accomplished by using a wide variety of joints.

What Is a Movable Joint? (with pictures)
A movable joint is a joint in the human body that is surrounded by fluid and can move.

Connective Tissue

Connective Tissue Study Guide

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Diseases and Disorders of the Skeletal System

Skeletal System Diseases
Our skeletal system is a living organ and constantly undergoes breakdown and rebuilding. Knowing more about these conditions can allow earlier detection and treatment to minimize pain and disability.

Disorders and Conditions of the the Skeletal System
There are several types of disorders of the skeletal system. These include fractures, postural deformities and other skeletal conditions.

Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases
The human skeleton has 206 bones. The skeletal system performs several vital functions and can be affected by several diseases.

Connective Tissue Disease: Types, Symptoms, Causes

Types of Bone Fractures: Buckle Fracture, Stress Fracture, Comminuted Fracture, and More

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Muscular System

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Function and Structure of Muscles

Muscular System – Muscles of the Human Body
Human Muscular System – The muscles of the human body are illustrated and explained in high detail in our exploration of muscular system anatomy.

Muscular System Anatomy, Diagram & Function
The muscular system is the series of muscles throughout the body that moves the skeleton, maintains posture through steady contraction, and generates heat through cell metabolism. Humans have three types of muscle.

Structure of Muscle (and associated connective tissues)
Muscle Structure – View diagram of the structure of muscle and read about key terms in the anatomy and physiology of muscle (IvyRose Holisic Resources Revision Page).

Muscles [VIDEO]

Muscular System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
The 650 muscles in the human body control movement and help to maintain posture, circulate blood and move substances throughout the body.

How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movements
Learn more about how skeletal muscles produce movements. Muscles are arranged in groupings of agonist, antagonist, and synergists that produce and modulate movement.

Muscle physiology Part 1: overview of muscle physiology

Tendon vs. ligament


Muscle Tissue [VIDEO]

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Muscle Contraction

Muscle Physiology – Types of Contractions

Types of Muscle Contractions: Isotonic and Isometric
Learn more about types of muscle contractions: isotonic and isometric. Muscle contractions are defined by the changes in the length of the muscle during contraction.

Muscle Contraction Process: Molecular Mechanism [3D Animation] [VIDEO]

Muscle Contraction [VIDEO]
This video looks at Muscle Contraction. It considers the various proteins involved and the regulation of contraction.

Types of Contractions

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Types of muscle and muscle Tissue

Types of Muscles

Three types of muscle [VIDEO]

Types of muscle tissue

What Is a Voluntary Muscle? (with pictures)

What Are Involuntary Muscles? (with pictures)

Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue

Characteristics of Muscle Tissue [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Characteristics of Muscle Tissue. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Principal Skeletal Muscles

Major Skeletal Muscles

Major Skeletal Muscle Groups & Function [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Major Skeletal Muscle Groups & Function. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

skeletal muscles and muscle groups

Names of Skeletal Muscles

How the Muscles are Named
Short article describing how muscles are named. The muscles of the body can be difficult to remember, as their names are often long and confusing. The key to learning the muscles is to understand the basic naming conventions, once you see the patterns, it will be much easier to remember.

Characteristics Used to Name Skeletal Muscles

Muscle Names and Locations
Students of introductory level courses in anatomy and physiology e.g. ITEC Diploma in Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology may be required to learn the locations in the human body of a list of muscles. This list of muscles includes links to individual pages about specific muscles and links to diagrams indicating the positions in the body of these specific muscles.

Major Muscles (Location & Function) [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Major Muscles (Location & Function). Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Muscles of the Head and Neck – Anatomy Pictures and Information
The muscles of the head and neck perform many important tasks, including movement of the head and neck, chewing and swallowing, speech, facial expressions, and movement of the eyes. These diverse tasks require both strong, forceful movements and some of the fastest, finest, and most delicate adjustments in the entire human body.

Muscles of the Chest and Upper Back

Abdominal Muscles Function, Anatomy & Diagram
The abdominal muscles provide postural support, protect internal organs in the abdominal and pelvic regions, and perform other functions.

Muscles of the Abdomen, Lower Back and Pelvis
The muscles of the abdomen, lower back, and pelvis are separated from those of the chest by the muscular wall of the diaphragm, the critical breathing muscle.

Muscles of the Upper Extremity

Muscles of the Lower Extremity

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Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System

Muscle Disorders

Musculoskeletal Disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) consist of minor physical disabilities. MSDs are a variety of conditions that affect the muscles, bones, and joints.

Muscular Disorders of the Human Body
Information about some of the most common muscular diseases and disorders, including: Atony, Atrophy, Disuse Atrophy, Cramp, Fibrositis, Muscle Fatigue, Myositis, Spasm, Spasticity, Sprain, Strain.

Myositis: Symptoms and Causes

Muscle Strain: Symptoms, Tests, and Treatment of Muscle Strain
A muscle strain, muscle pull, or even a muscle tear implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons.

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Urinary System

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Major Functions of the Urinary System

Urinary System

Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
The urinary system – also known as the renal system – produces, stores and eliminates urine, the fluid waste excreted by the kidneys. Urinary system functions and urinary system diseases are described.

Anatomy of the Urinary System

Functions of the Urinary System: Functions of the kidneys and other parts of the Urinary System of the Human Body.
Functions of the Urinary System: Functions of the kidneys and other parts of the Urinary System of the Human Body – as taught for Massage, Aromatherapy, Accupuncture, Shiatsu and other therapies.

Anatomy of the Urinary System
Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

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Structure of the Urinary System

Urinary System: Anatomy and Physiology with Interactive Pictures
Learn about urinary system anatomy using interactive pictures supported by thorough descriptions of its function in the human body.

Urinary part I nephron [VIDEO]

Urinary Part 2 [VIDEO]

Urinary Part 3 [VIDEO]

Urinary Part 4 [VIDEO]

The Kidneys (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Definition, and Conditions
Provides a detailed image and definition of the kidneys. Learn about their function, location in the body, and conditions that affect the kidneys.

Kidney Function, Location & Area
The kidneys are important organs with many functions in the body, including producing hormones, absorbing minerals, and filtering blood and producing urine. While they are important and kidney failure can be fatal, a human only needs one kidney to survive.

Kidney Pain : Location, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Your Kidneys and How They Work
A good overview of healthy kidney function with a description of various types of kidney failures.

Structure of the Kidney: Basic Diagram of the Kidney of the human body
Structure of the Kidney: Basic Diagram of the Kidney of the human body, as taught for A-Level Human Biology, ITEC Anatomy & Physiology, and as part of the basic training for some therapies, e.g. massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, shiatsu.

Kidneys – Anatomy Pictures and Information
The kidneys are the waste filtering and disposal system of the body. As much as 1/3 of all blood leaving the heart passes into the kidneys to be filtered before flowing to the rest of the body’s tissues.

External Anatomy and Location of Kidneys
Learn more about location and external anatomy of the kidneys. The kidneys are located at the rear wall of the abdominal cavity and they are protected by the ribcage.

Kidney Anatomy External
Large color medical illustration of human kidney anatomy shows the renal artery, renal vein, ureter and renal pelvis.

Internal Anatomy of the Kidney
Learn more about internal anatomy of the kidneys. The cortex and medulla make up two of the internal layers of a kidney and are composed of individual filtering units known as nephrons.

Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney

Structure of a Kidney Nephron: Basic Diagram of a Kidney Nephron
Structure of a Kidney Nephron: Basic Diagram of a Kidney Nephron, as taught for A-Level Human Biology, ITEC Anatomy & Physiology, and as part of the basic training for some therapies, e.g. massage, aromatherapy, acupuncture, shiatsu.

Ureter Function, Anatomy & Definition
The ureter is the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. In humans there are two ureters, one attached to each kidney. The upper half of the ureter is located in the abdomen and the lower half is located in the pelvic area.

A ureter is one of two uterine tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. Each ureter is about ten to twelve inches long. Urine flows down partly by gravity, but mainly by waves of contractions, which pass several times per minute through the muscle layers of the urethral walls.

Urinary Bladder – Anatomy and Physiology
The urinary bladder is a hollow elastic organ that functions as the body’s urine storage tank. Urine produced by the kidneys flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where is it stored before passing into the urethra and exiting the body.

Bladder Anatomy, Function & Diagram
The bladder, also known as the urinary bladder, is an expandable muscular sac that stores urine before it is excreted out of the body through the urethra. It is located in the lower abdominal area near the pelvic bones.

Urinary Bladder

Female Urethra Pictures, Anatomy & Diagram
In both genders, the urethra works as a tube connecting the urinary bladder to the genitals. The bladder collects and stores urine until it is ready to be discharged through the urethra.

Male Urethra Anatomy

Gross Anatomy of Urethra

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Diseases and Disorders of the Urinary System

Medicines used on the genito-urinary system
Medicines used on the genito-urinary system. Patient offers free health information links to useful sites and leaflets for you to learn more about Medicines used on the genito-urinary system. Symptoms, treatment information and fact sheets.

Urinary Tract Infection Medication
Compare Urinary Tract Infection medications. Comprehensive Urinary Tract Infection drug options for consumers and professionals including user ratings, reviews and drug dosage information.

Overview of Urinary Tract Symptoms

Urinary Tract Disorders & Diseases [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Urinary Tract Disorders & Diseases. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Urinary Tract Infection: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment
The urinary tract consists of the kidneys, ureters (which connect the kidneys and the bladder), bladder, and urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur in any part of the urinary tract. Most UTIs are caused by bacteria.

Urologic Diseases A-Z

Kidney Disease A-Z

Urinalysis: Procedure, Preparation & Risks
A urinalysis is a laboratory test done to detect problems with your body that can appear in your urine. Many illnesses and disorders affect how your body removes waste and toxins.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test

Ureteral Disorders

The Bladder (Human Anatomy): Function, Picture, Location, Definition
Provides a detailed image and definition of the bladder and describes its function, location in the body, and conditions that affect the bladder.

Urethral Disorders

Urethritis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment
Explains the causes, symptoms, and treatment of urethritis, an inflammation of the urethra that is commonly due to infection by bacteria.

Dialysis for Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure
Explains the different types of dialysis, a blood-cleansing procedure, used to treat kidney failure.

Dialysis: Purpose, Benefits & Risks
The function of your kidneys is to purify your body by removing waste and excess fluid. Dialysis is a treatment used for people whose kidneys don’t work properly.

Kidney Transplant
See the pros and cons of kidney transplant and after consulting with a doctor, find out if this kidney failure treatment option would be the best for you.

Kidney transplant

Transplant Surgery – Kidney Transplantation–procedures/kidney-transplantation.aspx

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Reproductive System

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Function and Structure of the Reproductive System

Reproductive System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
This may be the most important system in the body. Without the ability to reproduce, a species dies.

Reproductive Anatomy Lab [VIDEO]

Reproductive System [SLIDESHOW],%20143Chapter_051.ppt

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Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System: Organs, Function, and More
Provides an overview of the female reproductive system and how it works.

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Male Reproductive System

Male Reproductive Anatomy [VIDEO]

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Function and Structure of the Reproductive System

The Human Reproductive System

Reproductive System

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Male Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System – Explore Anatomy with Detailed Pictures
Male Reproductive System – Learn all about male reproductive organs and surrounding body parts using interactive human anatomy pictures and definitions.

Male Reproductive Organs Anatomy & Functions
The male reproductive system consists of a series of organs used during sexual intercourse and procreation. The primary organs are the gonads, or sex glands, which produce sperm. In men, these are the testes. The external genitalia of men include the penis and the scrotum.

Male Reproductive System

Anatomy of the Testis

Anatomy of the Testis

Male genitalia

Male Reproductive System Color Illustrations


Male Sex Hormones

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Function and Structure of the Reproductive System

Technical Issues In Reproductive Health

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Male Reproductive System

The Male Reproduction System

Male Reproductive System Lab


Male reproductive system diseases

Reproductive System Diseases [SLIDESHOW]

Penis Disorders: Peyronie’s Disease, Priapism, Balanitis, Phimosis, and More

Male Reproductive System Disorders

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Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System – Anatomy Pictures and Information
Explore the female reproductive system – interactive anatomy diagrams illustrate the function of the reproductive organs, from fertilization to birth.

Female Reproductive Organs Diagram, Picture & Functions
The female reproductive system allows for the nurturing of a fertilized egg so that it may develop into a fetus. The external female genitals consist of numerous parts, including the vaginal opening, clitoris, urethra, labia minora, and labia majora.

Female Reproductive System: Learn Facts and Definitions
Female (women) reproduction system facts, anatomy, pictures, and function. Step by step description of the female reproductive system from puberty to menopause.

Female reproductive system

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System Color Images

Female Reproductive System Lab

Overview of the Female Reproductive System

Female genitalia

Anatomy of the Uterus

Female Genital Anatomy

Female Anatomy & Physiology [SLIDESHOW]

Female Reproductive Cycle

4. Hormonal Regulation of the Female Reproductive System

Menstrual Cycle: An Overview

Menstrual Cycle

The Menstrual Cycle – Gynecological Concerns

Female reproductive system diseases

Female reproductive system procedures

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System Disorders

Disorders of the Female Reproductive Organs

Women’s Reproductive Health Information

The Female Reproductive System-Diseases & Disorders [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for The Female Reproductive System-Diseases & Disorders. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Human development

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Development [SLIDESHOW]

First Trimester
Fetal development during the first trimester is the most active. During the first trimester fetal development has new things arriving every day and week.

Fetal development: The 1st trimester
Fetal development begins before you even know you’re pregnant. Here’s what happens early on.

Fetal development: The 2nd trimester
Fetal development progresses rapidly in the second trimester. Check out the weekly changes.

Fetal development: The third trimester
Fetal development continues as your due date approaches. The countdown is on!

Pregnancy – The Birthing Process

The Birth Process [SLIDESHOW]

Related Diseases – Pregnancy: Symptoms, Early Signs of Pregnancy, and More
Learn what to expect week by week during the three phases of pregnancy (1st, 2nd, 3rd trimester). Find out what changes in your body to expect and how your baby will develop week by week.

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Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of STDs.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Women (STDs): Get the Facts
Learn and become aware of common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women, including descriptions, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments of each type of infection.

Sexually Transmitted Disease: Facts on STDs in Men and Women
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoan, fungus, and parasites. Learn about symptoms in women and men, treatment guidelines, and testing. Get a list of STDs and find out which STDs are transmissible from kissing.

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Endocrine System

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Functions of the Endocrine System

Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones.

What is the Endocrine System’s Function? Learn at Today!

Endocrine System: Discover the Anatomy and Function of Glands
The Human Endocrine System – Explore the anatomy of endocrine glands and their importance throughout the human body using our diagrams and descriptions.

Endocrine System Anatomy: Get Facts on Glands and Functions
The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual.

the endocrine system

Endocrine Systems Lab

Introduction To The Endocrine System [VIDEO]

Introduction to the Endocrine System [VIDEO]

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Major Endocrine Glands

Endocrine Glands

Pituitary gland | University of Maryland Medical Center

The Pituitary Gland [VIDEO]
This video considers the various hormones of the pituitary gland.

The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland [VIDEO]

Functional Anatomy of the Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

Pituitary 101
A multi-disciplinary center designed to provide comprehensive care to all patients with newly diagnosed and pre-existing pituitary disorders. Providing information on pathology, diagnosis, and treatment options.

Pituitary Gland Function, Location & Definition
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus, to which it is attached via nerve fibers. It is part of the endocrine system and produces critical hormones, which are chemical substances that control various bodily functions.

Pituitary Gland – Endocrine System
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located in the center of the skull, inferior to the hypothalamus of the brain and posterior to the bridge of the nose. It is an important link between the nervous and endocrine systems and releases many hormones which affect growth, sexual development, metabolism and human reproduction.

Pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland Disorder Symptoms
The pituitary gland may be the size of a pea but it is also known as the master gland because of its large impact on the body. Learn how the pituitary gland affects your body.

Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands [VIDEO]
This video considers the hormones produced by the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

Thyroid Gland Function, Location & Pictures
The thyroid gland covers the windpipe from three sides. Two hormones of the thyroid gland, T3 (thyroxine) and T4 (triiodothyronine), help the body to produce and regulate the hormones adrenaline (also called epinephrine) and dopamine. Hormones are chemical substances that help control certain cells and organs.

The Thyroid (Human Anatomy): Picture, Function, Definition, Location in the Body, and More
Provides a detailed image of the thyroid as well as a definition and information related to the thyroid. Learn about the conditions that affect this organ as well as its function and location in the body.

An Overview of the Parathyroid – The Calcium-regulating Gland that Helps Keep Bones Healthy
The parathyroid gland has a single responsibility in the endocrine system-to regulate calcium levels. To do this, it secretes parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid is located near your thyroid; however, their functions are not connected.

Adrenal glands

An Overview of the Adrenal Glands – Beyond Fight or Flight
The adrenal glands secrete adrenaline to help your body respond to stress, but they also regulate many vital processes in your body, such as metabolism.

What Is The Pancreas?

The Pancreas [VIDEO]
This video considers the anatomy and physiology of the pancreas. It discusses both endocrine hormones, Insulin and Glucagon.

Pancreas: Anatomy and Functions

Anatomy of the Pancreas

Reproductive Endocrinology

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Endocrine Activity in Cells and Organs

Control of Endocrine Activity

The prostaglandins are a group of lipids made at sites of tissue damage or infection that are involved in dealing with injury and illness. They control processes such as inflammation, blood flow, the formation of blood clots and the induction of labour.

Pineal Gland and Melatonin

An Overview of the Pineal Gland – Maintaining Circadian Rhythym
The pineal gland is the most mysterious organ in the endocrine system. It is influenced by light and produces the hormone melatonin, which affects your circadian rhythm and sleep cycles.

Pineal Gland – Anatomy Pictures and Information
The pineal gland (or pineal body) is an important endocrine gland. It is a small, oval structure descending from the roof of the diencephalon, a section of the brain that relays sensory information between the brain’s different regions. Although it’s very tiny-only about six millimeters long-the pineal gland produces several important hormones.

An Overview of the Thymus – The Gland that Protects You Long after It’s Gone
The thymus gland is largest during childhood and shrinks after puberty, but its effect on your body’s defenses last your whole life. Learn more about this important gland.

Thymus Gland – Anatomy Pictures and Information
The thymus gland, despite containing glandular tissue and producing several hormones, is much more closely associated with the immune system than with the endocrine system. The thymus serves a vital role in the training and development of T-lymphocytes or T cells, an extremely important type of white blood cell.

VAT: The Lymphatic System

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Regulation of Hormones

Hormonal Regulation of Hormone Release

Hormonal Regulation

Hormonal Control in Males [VIDEO]

Female Hormonal Control [VIDEO]

Negative Feedback Regulation of Hormone Release in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis

Hormonal Regulation
Hormones regulate metabolic activity in various tissues. They are one kind of mechanism for signaling among cells and tissues.

Hormone Regulation Feedback Mechanisms
Hormone Regulation Feedback Mechanisms – part of how the endocrine system works. What is a Feedback Mechanism? Why are hormone levels regulated by feedback mechanisms? Negative Feedback Systems and Positive Feedback Systems. Hormone release is stimulated as part of hormone regulation feedback mechanisms.

Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism
Learn more about hormonal regulation of metabolism. The levels of glucose in the blood are regulated by the hormones insulin and glucagon from the pancreas, and T3 and T4 from the thyroid.

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Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System

All Endocrine Disorders

Endocrine Diseases

Endocrine Disorders: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments
Explains what the endocrine system does, how endocrine disorders affect the body, and some specific things that can go wrong.

Adrenal Gland Disorders

Types Of Diabetes

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Integumentary System

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Function and Structure of the Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System

The Integumentary System [VIDEO]
The is a brief look at the Integumentary System. A walk through of the various organs including the skin.

Skin Model [VIDEO]

Integumentary System
Skin is one of the most important organs in the human body. Our anatomy pictures and descriptions of the integumentary system will show you why.

The Integumentary System Structure & Function [FLASHCARDS]

Structure and Function of the Skin

The Skin (Human Anatomy): Picture, Definition, Function, and Skin Conditions

Functions of the Skin
Functions of the skin: List of the main functions of the skin (most important functions of the skin) as required by courses in human biology and human anatomy & physiology. Typical coursework questions ask for 5 functions of the skin, 3 functions of the skin, and similar.

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Damage to the Skin

Sun Exposure, Skin Cancer, and Other Sun Damage
Explains how sun exposure ages the skin and raises the risk for skin cancer. Learn more about protecting yourself.

Skin Lesions: 45 Causes with Pictures, Types, & Treatments
A skin lesion is a part of the skin that has an abnormal appearance compared to the skin around it. Two types of skin lesions exist: primary and secondary.

Skin Lesion Nomenclature Tutorials
A learning module on nomenclature of skin lesions (dermatology) for primary care practitioners. Contains more than 100 images of common skin problems.

Skin Cancer Signs and Symptoms | Pictures of Skin Cancer and Precancerous Lesions [SLIDESHOW]
Like many cancers, skin cancers — including melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma — start as precancerous lesions. These precancerous lesions are changes in skin that are not cancer, but could become cancer over time. Learn to spot the early warning signs of skin cancer. It can be cured if it’s found and treated early.

Open Wound: Types, Treatments & Complications
An open wound is an injury involving an external or internal break in body tissue, usually involving the skin. Nearly everyone will experience an open wound at some point in his or her life. Most open wounds are minor and can be treated at home.

Wounds and Injuries

Burn Classification

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Diseases and Disorders of the Integumentary System

Skin: Facts, Diseases & Conditions

Diseases and Disorders of the Skin (Integumentary System)

diseases and disorders of the integumentary system [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for diseases and disorders of the integumentary system. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Skin Diseases, Disorders, Injury, and Clinical Cases
Learn more about skin diseases, disorders, injury, and clinical cases in physiology by reading the Boundless open physiology textbook.

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