Foundational Concepts in Medical Assisting

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Law and Ethics in Health Care

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Law and Licensure in Medical Practice

Medical Licensure
Also included are data on the numbers of initial and subsequent licenses awarded by state as well as information on key organizations involved in the licensure process, such as the Federation of State Medical Boards, National Board of Medical Examiners, and Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates.

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Law and Liability

Medicine and the Law – Contract and Consent

Medicine and the Law – Medical Malpractice

Medicine and the Law – Causation

Medicine and the Law – Informed Consent

Medicine and the Law – Abandonment

Medicine and the Law – Third Party Liability

Explain how tort law, criminal law, and contract law directly impact health care

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Health Care Legislation

Alabama medical practice act

Alaska medical practice act

Arizona medical practice act

Arkansas medical practice act

California medical practice act

Colorado medical practice act

Connecticut medical practice act

Delaware medical practice act

Florida medical practice act

Georgia medical practice act

Hawaii medical practice act

Idaho medical practice act

Illinois medical practice act

Indiana medical practice act

Iowa medical practice act

Kansas medical practice act

Kentucky medical practice act

Louisiana medical practice act

Maine medical practice act

Maryland medical practice act

Massachusetts medical practice act

Michigan medical practice act

Minnesota medical practice act

Mississippi medical practice act

Missouri medical practice act

Montana medical practice act

Nebraska medical practice act

Nevada medical practice act

New Hampshire medical practice act

New Jersey medical practice act

New Mexico medical practice act

New York medical practice act

North Carolina medical practice act

North Dakota medical practice act

Ohio medical practice act

Oklahoma medical practice act

Oregon medical practice act

Pennsylvania medical practice act

Rhode Island medical practice act

South Carolina medical practice act

South Dakota medical practice act

Tennessee medical practice act

Texas medical practice act

Utah medical practice act

Vermont medical practice act

Virginia medical practice act

Washington medical practice act

Washington DC medical practice act

West Virginia medical practice act

Wisconsin medical practice act

Wyoming medical practice act

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Ethics in Health Care

Ethics and Access to Health Care

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Understanding Human Behavior

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Psychology and Personality

Id, Ego and Superego

The Id, Ego and Superego
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory outlines three elements of personality – the id, the ego and the superego – that work together to form personality.

Influences on personality

Factors of Personality, Biological, Social, Cultural & Situational
Following factors of personality are contributing to the formation and development of human personality. Biological, Social, Cultural, & Factors

Factors influencing personality
Personality: It can be termed as the combination of qualities mental, physical and moral that set one apart from others. Personality can be termed as the combination of qualities – mental, physical, and moral that sets one part from others.

Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through the psychosexual stages of development. Erikson was interested in how children socialise and how this affects their sense of self.

Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development. He was interested both in how children learnt and in how they thought.

Lawrence Kohlberg

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Human Needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow outlined a hierarchy of needs whereby people are motivated to reach the highest level called self-actualization

Human Needs
Human evolution hardwired in a balance of physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual needs required for health and maturity.

Human Needs
Amidst the technological advances, the scientific breakthroughs and amazing advances in human development, cultivating healthy, positive, long-lasting relationships is something that has somehow been lost in translation. Without an understanding of what needs/values exist and are being exchanged among people,

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Mental and Physical Health


The Pillars Of The Self-Concept: Self-Esteem And Self-Efficacy

Special Education Issues: Hurtful Words about Disabilities

Labeling theory

Polishing up professionalism: The patient-centered professional

Negative Self-perception and Shame
We hear a great deal about self-esteem. But what is self-esteem, really? Self-esteem is our opinion of ourselves, based on others’ perceptions. So, how is it that we all, or at least many of us, have such a distorted and negative self perception? Good question.

Adapting to Change

How to Cope with Transition and Change
Throughout life, people can count on changes or transitional phases.This ability to cope points people on the path to leading a more satisfying fulfilled life.

Motivating change: Tips for health care professionals

Phobias and Fears
Is a phobia keeping you from doing things you’d like to do? Learn how phobias can be managed and cured.

A phobia is an excessive and irrational fear reaction. If you have a phobia you will experience a deep sense of dread, and sometimes panic, upon encountering the source of your fear. The fear can be of a certain place, situation, or object.

The Phobia List

How to Deal with Chronic Fear and Anxiety

Anxiety Disorders and Stress

Anxiety Related Diseases & Conditions

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Get the facts on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, medications, and treatment. Symptoms include dread, worry, and angst.

Stress Symptoms, Signs, and Causes
Don’t let stress hijack your life. Learn the signs and causes of stress overload and what you can do to help yourself.

What is the difference & association between fear, anxiety, panic disorder, paranoia & phobia?

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Emotion Focused Coping

15 Common Defense Mechanisms
In some areas of psychology (especially in psychodynamic theory), psychologists talk about defense mechanisms, or manners in which we behave or think in

Defense Mechanisms

Freud’s Ego Defense Mechanisms

How Do You Cope?

Coping strategies
What strategy should I use to cope with stress? What type of coping strategies are the most efficient: problem-focused strategy or emotion-focused strategy?

Kübler-Ross model

The 5 Stages of Loss and Grief
The stages of mourning and grief are universal and are experienced by people from all walks of life.

Coping with Death and Dying
Coping with Death and Dying. Counseling Services assists students in resolving personal difficulties and in acquiring those skills, attitudes, and resources necessary to succeed.

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Understanding Patient Behavior

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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth & Development: Developmental Psychology

Childhood Development
Learn about Childhood Development symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Physical Growth of Infants and Children
Learn about Physical Growth of Infants and Children symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Theory of Psychosocial Development

Physical Development in Adulthood
Learn more about physical development in adulthood. As individuals age and move through early, middle, and later adulthood, a variety of physical changes take place within the body.

Development in Early & Middle Adulthood–middle-adulthood

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Cultural Diversity

Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Health Care

Cultural Diversity and Patient Education

How culture influences health beliefs

The Importance of Cultural Diversity in Health Care – See more at:
Explore cultural diversity in healthcare as America undergoes a health care reform and consider what “universal access” really means.

Folk Medicine

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Response to Illness

Reactions To Illness In The Hospitalized Adult

Emotional Responses to Illness

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Effective Communication

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The Communication Process

Impact of Communication in Healthcare

Six Steps of the Health Care Communication Process
Vocabulary words for Six Steps of the Health Care Communication Process. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Effective Verbal Communication

Verbal Communication Skills
Learn effective ways to improve your verbal communication. Use your voice to get your message across, clearly and concisely while reducing misunderstanding.

How can health care professionals improve verbal communication with patients and families?
How can health care professionals improve verbal communication with patients and families? The average consumer is not familiar with health terminology and does not think about health information in the same way as health professionals. Patients don’t understand or forget at least 50% of what is discussed in a typical office visit.

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Effective Nonverbal Communication

Non-Verbal Communication
Non-verbal communication is often subtle and can include body language, tone of voice, and gestures. Learn why non-verbal communication is so important.

Nalini Ambady and Robert Rosenthal

Importance of Body Language in Nursing Communication
Body language in communication is important. Make sure to use them properly because your patients see our hearts in our actions.

Your body language speaks loudly: Nonverbal communication makes patient more comfortable

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Effective Listening

Listening Skills
Listening Skills are vital for interpersonal communication. How well do you listen? Learn about the 10 principles of listening and improve your communication.

How to improve your listening skills

Effective Written Communication

How do the principles of clear health communication apply to written communication?
How do the principles of clear health communication apply to written communication? Most adults, regardless of education level, want health care information that is easy to read and understand.

Writing Skills
Follow easy-to-read articles to help you improve your writing skills including: Grammar, Spelling, Punctuation, Writing Styles, Referencing and more.

Writing Skills: Getting Your Written Message Across Clearly
Learn about composition, style, common errors, and proofreading, so that you can become a better writer.

10 Tips for Effective Written Communication
With email, text messaging and blogs, most of us are communicating in writing more often than we interact face-to-face. There is a lot riding on those written words, so it makes sense to strive for a conversational, easy-to-understand, yet professional writing style. Here are ten tips for more effective written communication.

Spelling – Language reference content from Oxford. Help with language usage, grammar questions, punctuation, spelling, and language learning.

The five features of effective writing: Style


English grammar guide
Do you have a question about the correct usage of the semicolon or how to place adverbs in a sentence? If so, you’ve come to the right place. is a complete English grammar guide filled with the rules of English usage. Each grammatical rule is explained in plain English with several examples, and when needed, counter-examples. The grammatical rules covered by this guide are categorized below. English grammar is not always easy to understand, but by using this guide you should be able to remind yourself of the rules of English usage and speak or write English with confidence.

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Effective Communication using Electronic technology

Health Communication and Health Information Technology
Use health communication strategies and health information technology (IT) to improve population health outcomes and health care quality, and to achieve health equity.

Communication Technology and Social Media: Opportunities and Implications for Healthcare Systems

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Communicating with Patients

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Role of the Medical Assistant

What is a Medical Assistant?
Discover the demand for medical assistants, their roles and responsibilities, including administrative and clinical duties, and CMA (AAMA) certification.

What a Medical Assistant Can Do for Your Practice
The author describes ways of fostering more productive working relationships between family physicians and the medical assistants they work with.

A Visit to the Doctor: Three Scenarios

Medical Assisting Case Studies

Ways to improve the provider-patient relationship
Every patient that arrives for medical care is different.

Communication in Health Care: Considerations and strategies for successful consumer and team dialogue

How to Handle Patient Complaints
When a patient raises a complaint, the staff’s best course of action is a coherent, concise response that preserves patient confidence and satisfaction.

Malpractice Dangers in Patient Complaints

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Different Cultures

In Other Words…Communicating with People From Other Cultures
Now, more than ever, patients and providers need to communicate in ways that are clear, simple, and understandable. This is not only a matter of good clinical care, but also required for accreditation and patient satisfaction.

Communication with patients from other cultures: the place of explanatory models

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Patients with Special needs

Communicating With and About People with Disabilities

Managing patients with disabilities

Communicating Effectively With People Who Have A Disability

Improving Communication With Older Patients: Tips From the Literature
The article describes practical ways physicians and staff members can improve communication with elderly patients and ensure they receive optimal care.

Talking with your older patient

Communicating with People with Mental Illness: The Public’s Guide
Popular media fuel stereotypes about mental illness and dangerousness, because that is how they generally are portrayed on the screen. Our fear of mentally ill people also stems from our own inability to communicate with them and our lack of knowledge about mental illness. Learn how to better communicate with people who may have a mental illness.

Communication With Cognitively Impaired Patients And Residents

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Patient Education

Creating Effective Patient Education in Your Practice

Five Tips for Providing Effective Patient Education

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Role of the Medical Assistant

What Is Holistic Medicine?
Holistic medicine is an approach to health and well being that includes conventional and alternative treatments.

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Patient Education

Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches

Glossary of Cognitive Skills
What are Cognitive Skills? – Learn the key cognitive skills that are critical for learning. What are they? Do you have the skills needed to learn?

What is the Affective Domain anyway?

Three Domains of Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor
The three domains of learning are cognitive (thinking/head), affective (feelings), & psychomotor (physical). This is a succinct overview of all 3.

Related theories of Patient Education

Process of Patient Education: Introduction

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Dietary Guidelines

7 Signs of Inadequate Nutrition
Many Americans, young and old, fall short on vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. But the challenge of getting adequate nutrition may be trickiest for seniors. Research shows that older people may need more of certain key nutrients, such as B vitamins and calcium.

Nutritional Deficiencies (Malnutrition)
The recommended daily amount (RDA) of a nutrient is determined by how much the body needs to stay healthy. Nutrients can be obtained in a variety of ways-from eating a varied diet to taking vitamin supplements.

Nutrition: Healthy Eating
Healthy nutrition is an important part of disease prevention. Learn how to change your diet and make healthier choices.

Dietary Guidelines
The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans provides evidence-based nutrition information and advice for people age 2 and older.

How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label
The following label-building skills are intended to make it easier for you to use nutrition labels to make quick, informed food choices that contribute to a healthy diet.

Calculate Your Body Mass Index

Body Mass Index

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Food Guide Pyramid

Plate = New Symbol for Healthy Eating
Goodbye, Food Guide Pyramid! Hello, MyPlate! The USDA’s divided plate is designed to make it easier to understand healthy eating.

Food Guide Pyramid

Choose My Plate
Multilingual guide to good nutrition

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Principals of Nutrition

Principles of Human Nutrition

Principles of nutrition, nutritional surveillance and assessment in specific populations including its short and long term effects

Nutrition for Everyone

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Nutrients in Foods


Food search
Find out how many calories are in the foods you eat. CalorieKing provides nutritional food information for calorie counters and people trying to lose weight.

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Nutrition through the Life Span

Nutrition for the School-Aged Child–90-P02280

Nutrient Recommendations for Adults

Importance of Folate
Why is folate so important to your diet? Find out the nutritional benefits by watching a short video and learn what kinds of foods to consume that contain folate.

Healthy Eating and Lifestyle for the Later Years

Healthy Living for Later Years:
Eating Well

Nutrition through life

Eight nutrients to protect the aging brain

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Nutrition and Chronic Disease

Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases
A report of the joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases.

Diet and Nutrition Prevention of Chronic Diseases
This Digest is a faithful summary of the leading scientific consensus report produced in 2003 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO): ‘Diet, Nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases’

Nutrition and Physical Activity

Nutrition and Chronic Disease

The AMA is committed to obesity prevention through promoting healthier lifestyles. AMA’s physician resources offers efforts related to the education, assessment and management of child and adult obesity.

The American Heart Association’s Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations

AMA: Trans Fat Ban Would Save Lives
Banning the use of artificial trans fats is a live-saving move that can help keep the public healthy, and the American Medical Association strongly supports the Food and Drug Administration’s recommendation to eliminate one of the most harmful fats in our food supply.

Metabolic Syndrome
What is metabolic Syndrome? The American Heart Association explains what metabolic syndrome is, what your risk of metabolic syndrome is, the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, the treatment of metabolic syndrome and how metabolic syndrome can be prevented.

Metabolic Syndrome (formerly known as Syndrome X) Center: Symptoms, Treatments, Signs, Causes, and Tests
Find in-depth information on metabolic syndrome – a group of health problems that can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and diabetes.

Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

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Diet Therapy

Regular Diet
Care guide for Regular Diet possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.

Healthy Eating
Healthy eating is about eating smart. Transform your eating habits with these easy tips.

Liquid Diets
Read about types of liquid diets, medically supervised medical diets, and how to lose weight safely on a liquid diet, and learn about disadvantages of a liquid diet.

Diet – full liquid

Liquid Diets

Clear liquid diet
Learn which foods are allowed and which foods to avoid on a clear liquid diet.

Soft Diet
Care guide for Soft Diet possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.

Soft Diet
Detailed information about dietary instructions for gastro medicine at Digestive Healthcare of Georgia.

Soft and Mechanical Soft Diet

Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet
A meal plan helps you decide on the kinds of food you can choose to eat at meals and snack times.

Diabetic Diet

The Basics of a Healthy Diabetes Diet
While there is no such thing as a diabetes diet, there are certain guidelines to keep in mind for keeping your blood sugar levels in check. Provides an overview of how to eat if you have diabetes.

Diabetes Diet and Food Tips
A healthy diet can help you prevent, control, and even reverse diabetes. These tips will get you started.

Calorie Control Council
Information on cutting calories and fat in your diet, achieving and maintaining a healthy weight, and your favorite low-calorie, reduced fat-foods and beverages.

7 Expert Tricks for Calorie and Portion Control
If you don’t watch it, calorie inflation can make your weight creep up. Here are seven expert tips for keeping calories and portion sizes under control.

Meal Plans

Guidelines for a Low Cholesterol, Low Saturated Fat Diet

A Sample Menu for a Low-Fat Diet,,20313653,00.html
The Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet places limits on sodium, dietary cholesterol, and total calories.

Low-Fat/Low Cholesterol Diet

Sodium Restricted Diet

Understanding Sodium And Sodium Restricted Diets

Low-salt diet

Kidney-Friendly Diet and Foods: Healthy Eating for People with Chronic Kidney Disease
It’€™s important to be on a kidney diet when you have chronic kidney disease. Kidney friendly foods and drinks will help you stay healthier.

Renal Failure Diet
Care guide for Renal Failure Diet possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.

Diet – chronic kidney disease

National Kidney Foundation: Nutrition

Diet in renal disease

Bland diet

The Bland Diet

Low-Fiber Foods
A low-fiber diet may be suggested for diarrhea, cramping, trouble digesting food, or after some types of surgery. Here you’ll find lists of low-fiber foods, along with lists of foods to avoid.

Low-fiber diet

Low-fiber diet
Need to follow a low-fiber diet? Get the details of which foods are allowed and which foods to avoid while you’re on a low-fiber diet.

Slide show: Guide to a high-fiber diet
Do you eat a high-fiber diet? If not, this visual guide can show you how.

High Fiber Diet

Chart of high-fiber foods
Eating enough high-fiber foods? Find out the dietary fiber content of some common foods.

Food faddism

Food Addiction

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Understanding Medical Terminology

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Word Origins and Meaning

Whonamedit? – A dictionary of medical eponyms
A biographical dictionary of medical eponyms.

Surgical Encyclopedia
Surgical Technologist Training and Education Resources

Wolf’s Down and Dirty Lists – Eponyms List

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Guidelines for Medical terminology

Online Medical Terminology Course

Eponyms (for students) [iTunes APP]

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Word Origins and Meaning

An Introduction to Medical Terminology I. Greek and Latin Derivations

Understanding Medical Words of Greek and Latin Origin

Understanding Medical Words: A Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine

Understanding Medical Terminology [VIDEO]

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Word Parts

Medical Terminology: Prefixes, roots, suffixes

Common Medical Root Words
The root of a word is its main part and core meaning. These common medical root words give you a general idea of what you’re dealing with or specify a body part. …

Word Roots for Organs

Medical Suffixes

Useful Prefixes and Suffixes

Medical Terminology (prefixes, roots, suffixes) [FLASHCARDS]

Medical Prefixes & Suffixes [iTunes APP]

Medical Suffixes

Word Forms Representing Color [FLASHCARDS]

Word Forms Representing Chemical Elements [FLASHCARDS]

Word forms representing tissues [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Word forms representing tissues. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Medical Terminology: Prefixes that Pertain to Numbers or Quantity [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Medical Terminology: Prefixes that Pertain to Numbers or Quantity. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Medical Prefixes Representing Number, Quantity, Size and Amount [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Medical Prefixes Representing Number, Quantity, Size and Amount. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Guidelines for Medical terminology

Medical Terminology Pronunciation Jukebox

Pronunciation of Medical Terminology [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Taken from Medical Terminology-A Short Course. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Medical Terminology, Shortcuts for Pronunciation [VIDEO]

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Word Parts

Prefixes Representing Position/Direction [FLASHCARDS]

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Guidelines for Medical terminology


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Word Parts

Medical Terminology- General Suffixes [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Medical Terminology- General Suffixes. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Medical Terminology Descriptive Prefixes [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Medical Terminology Descriptive Prefixes. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Common Medical Suffixes [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Common Medical Suffixes. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

iagnostic & Symptomatic Suffixes [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Diagnostic & Symptomatic Suffixes. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

Medical Terminology Operative Suffixes and Compounding Elements [FLASHCARDS]
Vocabulary words for Medical Terminology Operative Suffixes and Compounding Elements. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.

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Guidelines for Medical terminology

Forming Plurals

Forming Plurals of Medical Words

Forming Plurals of Medical Words

Medical Terminology – Singular To Plural Form [FLASHCARDS]

Medical Terminology – Medical Antonyms [FLASHCARDS]

Medical Terminology Synonyms [FLASHCARDS]

Medical Terminology – Medical Homonyms [FLASHCARDS]

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